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asocyan anvasocas tvam
prajna-vadams ca bhasase
gatasun agatasums ca
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: While speaking learned
words, you are mourning for what is not worthy of grief. Those who
are wise lament neither for the living nor for the dead.
This is the version of Krishna in the beginning of Bhagavad-gita. So first of all it is said here, Vyasadeva, the author..., not author, the compiler who recorded the talks between Krishna and Arjuna and then put it systematically in a book form. So he says that bhagavan uvaca. Bhagavan means the Supreme Person. Just like in this meeting, amongst my students, I am the supreme person, similarly, in the state there is a supreme person, the president or the prime minister, so everywhere you will find out one supreme person. Without a supreme person nothing can be managed, order-giving person. This is everlastingly existing, and you cannot avoid this. Even in Communist country they also have the supreme person, dictator. So taking the whole universal affair, the nature, how things are going on... The sun is rising early in the morning. It is setting exactly in due time. Then the moon is coming. Everyone in big, big planetary system, they are working very systematically. The astronomical calculation is so perfect that, they say, one ten-thousandth part of a second is also calculated. So accurately things are moving.
So in the Brahma-samhita it is said, yac caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam. The sun is the eye of all the planets. We have got eyes, but unless there is sunrise, what is the value of our eyes? We cannot see. We are very much proud of our eyes, we want to see everything. But we do not calculate the value of our eyes. Unless there is sunshine we cannot see. At night, unless there is electricity or moonlight or some lamp, we cannot see. And still, we are very much proud of seeing. This is called illusion. We have no power. We are put under certain condition; then we work. Otherwise we cannot work. Prakrteh kriyamanani. Prakrti, material nature, puts us under certain condition and we work accordingly, not independently. And the prakrti, material nature, also is working under somebody. Just like when you go on the street you see red light and green light. As soon as you see red light you stop your car. So this red light and green light is being manipulated by the police, and the police is working under government. Similarly, this whole material nature is acting like red light or green light, but behind that red light and green light there is the supreme brain. That is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So as a layman or as child cannot understand how the red light and blue light, green light, is working... He sees simply, he thinks automatically it is being done. That is foolishness. It is not being automatically done. There is machine. There is manipulator behind this red light. So this is intelligence. Anyone who is concluding that "On the street the red light and green light is working automatically; there is no brain behind it," he's a rascal. Similarly, the whole material cosmic manifestation is working... Even the big sun planet, it is also working under certain direction. Yac caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam. Without sunrise nobody can see, not only in this planet, in other planets also, sakala-grahanam. So this sun planet is so important... Day and night, year and millions of years--everything is being
calculated on the solar system. So this powerful planet is described as the eyes of everyone. Without sunshine nobody can see. Yac caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam raja. It is to be considered as the king of all planets, raja, sakala-grahanam. All the planets, they are moving, rotating on the heat of the sun, heat and light, and they are working on the light of the sun. Sun is so important. Everything is described in the Vedic literature. So that sun also--working under somebody's direction. Yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakrah. The sun is rotating in the orbit at the speed of sixteen thousand miles per second by the order of somebody. That is Govinda. Yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami.
So this is knowledge. This is knowledge. So the Supreme Person is Bhagavan. Bhaga means six kinds of opulences: the richest, the most powerful, the wisest, the most beautiful, and the most influential, and the most renounced at the same time. Just like this whole cosmic manifestation is created by the will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but you will not find him here. Disinterested. Many millions of universes are working by His will, but He is not interested. The example is just like a big capitalist. He has got many factories, and if you go to the factory--there is a Tata factory, iron factory--you will find huge factories going on, but Mr. Tata is not there. Things are going on. Similarly, all cosmic manifestation going on, it is under the will of Krishna. But He is not present here. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gita, mat-sthani sarva-bhutani: "Everything is resting on Me." Any factory, every worker knows that the whole factory function resting on that supreme person. He knows that. So actually fact is that mat-sthani sarva-bhutani naham tesu avasthitah: "But I am not there. I am not there." Similarly, Bhagavan means that. Under His will, under His power, everything is working so nicely, systematically, but if you want to see God, Krishna, you cannot see Him. He is not there. He is in Goloka Vrndavana, but His influence is so extensive that even without His personal presence, things are going on so nicely. This is called Bhagavan. Bhagavan means this.
So here in this Bhagavad-gita, that Bhagavan is giving you knowledge. So how much perfect it is, you have to consider. Vyasadeva could have said, "sri-vyasadeva uvaca." No. Bhagavan uvaca, so authoritative. So whatever He says, there cannot be any change. It is all perfect. Unfortunately, we rascals, we do not take Bhagavad-gita as it is. We want to change it according to our whims. This rascal havoc has ruined the whole world. Otherwise, if they would have preached Bhagavad-gita as it is, the world situation would have been different. Everything would have been in order, tranquility, peace, and everybody would have been prosperous. But the rascals will not do that. That is the defect. Therefore our tiny effort is how to present Bhagavad-gita as it is. This is our mission. If we take... Even now, in this distorted condition of the world, if we accept Bhagavad-gita as it is, then still, we will be benefited. There is no doubt about it. Therefore our appeal is that throughout the whole world people should come, try to understand Bhagavad-gita, and set up examples and do the needful. Then everything will be peaceful. This is the peace formula. Bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram, suhrdam sarva-bhutanam. Suhrdam sarva-bhutanam. Suhrt means well-wisher. Well-wisher. Here is the supreme well-wisher. He wants, Krishna wants that wherever you live, you live peacefully and happily; and therefore He is called suhrt. He is desiring everyone's happiness. Therefore He comes Himself to advise, to instruct how to live, how to follow His instruction, and He leaves these behind Him, such books as Bhagavad-gita, and He sends His representative occasionally to revive our consciousness. This business is going on, not only in the human society, even in the animal society. Anywhere, even in demigod society, things are going on like that. Therefore we should know, whatever Bhagavan says, there cannot be any mistake, any illusion, any cheating or any imperfectness. Then it will be very nice. And that is the fact. The word used, bhagavan uvaca, means this instruction is neither mistaken nor illusion nor cheating nor imperfect. Whatever we teach, we speak, we conditioned soul... As I said, that we are very much proud of our eyes, but we cannot see without sunrise... We cannot see without electricity. But that is our defect. We are possessing everything defective, still we are proud: "We are perfect." That is cheating. We are not perfect. But Krishna, Bhagavan, is not like that. If we think Krishna is also like us, avajananti mam mudha manusim... Because He teaches exactly like a human being, He appears, therefore we think, "He may be little more intelligent than me. After all, He is like me." No. He is Bhagavan. We have to understand.
So the problem was that Arjuna was not willing to fight, considering his family members as not to be killed. Nobody, of course, should like to kill his family members, so that was natural. But this family relationship or national relationship, community relationship, this is due to this body. I accept somebody as my brother because he has got the body from the same father from whom I have got this body. But the body is by-product of the father's body. So this bodily relationship is material. Material means outward, external. It is not real relationship. The father is a soul, I am soul, my brother is a soul, so we are related on the spiritual platform in relationship with God because soul is not matter. Our material father is... Material father means we see the material body. We do not see the soul of the father, neither the father sees the soul of the son. Everyone under illusion we are simply seeing the body and accepting as kinsman. So this illusion was to be removed by Krishna, and therefore He said, asocyan anvasocas tvam. "You are lamenting over the body. Oh, it is very regrettable. You are lamenting." Asocyan anvasocah. What is this body? It is simply lump of matter. As soon as the soul is out of this body, what is the value of this lump of matter? It will be thrown in the street, and somebody will kick on the face. Nobody will care. Nobody will care. But so long the soul is there, if you touch the hair even--"Why you are touching my hair?" But when the soul is not there, on the same face, if somebody kicks, nobody will care. This is the position of the body. Therefore it is said, asocyan: "It is garbage. Why you are lamenting on this garbage?" Asocyan anvasocas tvam. "You are talking, very learned man, that 'If I kill my brothers the, my brothers' wives will be widow, and there will be prostitution and then the whole family will go to ruin.' These are all external condition." He...
This is real education, that "You are thinking on terms of the body; therefore it is not very important subject matter." Real subject matter--what will happen to the soul--that is real, important. But whole world, they do not know what is the important platform. All rascals, they are concerned with this body. That is not wonderful; that is natural. Even if we know, still, if there is some bodily pain we become very much disturbed. But we should know, always remember, that "I am not this body." The same example, that I have got a very nice car, Rolls Royce car, I have got attachment, that is all right, but we should know always that "I am not this Rolls Royce car. I am different from it." This is knowledge. "I may have some attachment for my car. That is natural. I have paid for it. I like it. But in spite of all these consideration I am not the Rolls Royce car. The Rolls Royce car is a lump of matter. I am using it." Similarly, we should always remember that "I am using this material body for my transaction, different transactions, but I am not this material body." But a devotee, he uses this material body, utilizes it properly. Just like we are also going by aeroplane, by motorcar, but we have no concern with the... I have come to you country by aeroplane not to see your country. I have come for Krishna's business: to see if I can induce you to Krishna consciousness. Otherwise we have no concern with this aeroplane or motorcar or anything. We take advantage. Similarly, when we take advantage of this body for advancing in Krishna consciousness, then it is very nice. Nirbandhah krishna-sambandhe. That is also renouncement. He has no attachment. He simply uses things. Then that thing becomes spiritual. Actually it is spiritual, and when it is not used for spiritual purpose or Krishna's purpose, it is material, the same thing. What is the difference between material and spiritual? That is, a picture is there. There are so many pictures. People may say that "Here is the same picture. Why these people are worshiping and offering arati and chanting?" But this picture is spiritual because it enhances or enthuses a spiritual consciousness. Therefore it is spiritual. Of course, it is not very easy to understand immediately, but on the ultimate issue, everything is created by Krishna, or God, so by seeing everything, if you remember Krishna, then that is spiritual. That is spiritual. So anyway, for ordinary man this does not happen.
Therefore Krishna says that "You are lamenting for the body. Oh, it is very astonishing. And you are talking like a very learned man." Everyone you will find talking, very learned man. He knows something, but ask him, "What you are?" "I am Indian." "I am American. I am Mr. Such and such. I am father of such and such." This is bodily... However great he may be, he is identified with the body. And according to sastra, so long we shall identify with this body, we are not better than the cats and dogs because they also identify with the body. Therefore Krishna says, asocyan anvasocas tvam prajna-vadams ca bhasase. "Why? I am wrong?" Yes. Because gatasun agatasums ca. The body, whether with the soul or without the soul, it is material. So so long even the soul is there, we should not be very much interested with the bodily comforts. We should be interested how to make progress in spiritual consciousness. And general people, they are simply engaged to get bodily comforts. The whole world is going on. The material civilization means bodily comfort. They are increasing their activities how to... They take it as civilization that to increase the bodily comforts of life. That is their idea. But they do not know that even if we are able to increase to the largest extent our bodily comfort, the body will not exist. It will die. But we do not see to that, that "Never mind. We shall die. So long we live..." Yavad jivet sukham jivet. "So long we live, let us live very happily." So it is a great science. They do not know that... You may think that you are living very happily, but you have to change this body, and that body may not be very happy. That they do not know. This is ignorance, moha. Mohitam nabhijanati. Being bewildered by the three modes of material nature, they do not know what is the actual fact. Therefore we have to learn from the perfect person, Krishna, what is this position. Here it is said that asocyan anvasocas tvam prajna-vadams ca bhasase gatasun agatasums ca nanu... "This is not the subject matter of eulogizing or lamenting. The subject matter should be different. That is soul." Then He will explain, next verse.
na tv evaham jatu nasam
na tvam neme janadhipah
na caiva na bhavisyamah
sarve vayam atah param
Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all
these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.
Krishna is giving more enlightenment on the living entity, soul. "Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be." Now, Krishna says that "In the past I existed. So also you. And so also all these soldiers and the kings who have assembled in this fighting. They existed in the past. For the present, there is no question of asking... We are existing. And in the future also, it is not that we shall not exist." That means, "We shall exist." So what is "I," "you," and "others"? I am individual person. You are individual person, and all others, they're also, each and every one of them, individual persons. So in the past we were all individuals; at present we are all individuals; and in the future also, we shall remain individuals. So where there is question of merging, becoming one? Here Krishna says that "In the past we are individual persons, in the present we are all individual persons, and in future also, we shall remain individuals."
So the Mayavadi theory that impersonal, how it stands? Neither God is impersonal, nor the living entities are impersonal. Every one of us--person. The difference between the Supreme Person and our personality is that He is all-powerful; we are limited. Our power is limited. Everything ours is limited. Anu, vibhu. He is great; we are small. He is infinite; we are infinitesimal, very small. Otherwise, in all other qualities, we are one. There is no difference. Sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah. In eternity, in blissfulness, and in knowledge. Everything is there. But Krishna's knowledge and our knowledge, different. Just like Krishna said, imam vivasvate yogam proktavan aham avyayam. "I spoke this yoga system, Bhagavad-gita, long long ago to the sun-god." Vivasvan manave praha. "And the sun-god explained it to his son, Manu; and Manu again, in his turn, he explained to his son, Iksvaku. In this way, this knowledge of Bhagavad-gita is coming by the disciplic succession." So Krishna says, "I spoke." So it is millions and millions, at least, four hundred thousand millions of times, millions of years ago, according to the calculation of Manu. So Krishna said millions and millions of years ago this Bhagavad-gita, He remembers. But Arjuna inquired from Him that "How can I believe that You spoke this Bhagavad-gita millions of millions years ago to sun-god, because we are contemporary?" Krishna and Arjuna, they're of, practically of the same age.
So Arjuna was calculating as a human being about Krishna. That was his mistake. That was his not mistake. That was his inquiry to clear the mistake of ours. We mistake Krishna as one of us. Because Krishna comes down as human being, we, due to our lack of knowledge, poor fund of knowledge, we think Krishna is as good as we are. But actually it is not. Krishna is God. We are ordinary living entities. His knowledge, His power of remembrance, His power of knowing everything perfectly is different from our knowing. But unfortunately we think, "God may be little greater than me."
That is that Dr. Frog philosophy. We have explained several times. Kupa-manduka-nyaya. The frog within the well, he is calculating the dimension of Pacific Ocean. So by this frog philosophical way, we cannot understand what is God. We must receive the knowledge from God Himself, or from a person who knows God. Otherwise, there is no possibility. Now, according to Mayavada philosophy, they say that there is no duality. It is a kind of illusion that we see difference between God and ourself. That is maya. Then Krishna is not advocating herewith about the impersonal feature of the Lord. He is God himself. He says "I, I was existing as I am existing now, and in future also, I shall exist like this." So He was speaking as individual person. So in the past He says that "I was individual person." And in the present He's individual person. So why these Mayavadi philosophers, do not understand this direct version from the Supreme Personality of Godhead?
Because asuram bhavam asritah. The Mayavadi philosophers, they do not accept the supremacy of the Personality of Godhead. They think God is as good as they are. Therefore they introduce themselves as Narayana. But according to Vaisnava philosophy, Narayana cannot be equal to any one of us. What speak of us, Narayana cannot be equally estimated even with great demigods like Lord Brahma, Lord Siva. That is... The Vaisnava Purana says, yas tu narayanam devam brahma-rudradi-daivataih, samatvenaiva vikseta sa pasandi bhavad dhruvam: "Anyone who calculates Narayana, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, equal with such demigods, not, what to speak of ordinary human beings, even big, big demigods like Lord Siva, Lord Brahma, he immediately becomes a pasandi, atheist." So if... The Mayavadi philosophy, they put forward this argument that "Because we are now in maya, we are thinking that we are different from God."
But Krishna is making thus such differentiation that... He's making, He's saying, "You and I and all these." So does it mean that Krishna is also covered by maya or illusion? Because He is very clearly differentiating between Him and the living entities, all individuals. So if the Mayavadi philosopher is right that this differentiation is due to our illusion, then we have to accept Krishna is also in illusion. Because He's making differentiation. So if Krishna is in illusion, then what is the use of taking His version? Because our proposition is that we have to take knowledge from the perfect person. So if Krishna is in illusion, then how He can become perfect person, and the knowledge delivered by Him is perfect? No. Krishna is not illusioned. We are in illusion. Krishna is not in illusion. Krishna cannot be in illusion.
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada